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Chromatography Resins

Chromatography resin is a robust material used for the separation and purification of different components in mixtures based on their corresponding interactions with resin matrix.
Bestchrom chromatography resin portfolio ranges from size exclusion resin, ion exchange resin, affinity resin, mixed-mode resin, hydrophobic interaction resin, pre-activated resin to reversed phase resin. All these items can provide exceptional purification performance via high efficiency and great stability. 
Explore the full range of resins offered by Bestchrom, finding the most suitable chromatography solution for your specific purification needs at lab scale experiment and processing scale production.
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How to Select the Right Chromatography Resin
If you are looking for a trustworthy manufacturer & if you want to purchase materials for chromatography resin at affordable prices, Bestchrom is your trustworthy and excellent choice. When selecting a chromatography resin, consider your specific needs and budget and choose the type that best suits your requirements.

Definition of chromatography resin

The resin used in chromatography, also known as media, is the material used to capture and polish mAbs, antibody fragments, vaccines, and other biomolecules when performing chromatography separations.

When using chromatography resin, the media is packed and held in a column during the stationary phase. These particles can be physically or chemically modified to provide specificity to bind or repel particular molecules in a sample. This can be particularly useful, as this process can separate out a target compound, even from a highly complex mixture.

These columns typically operate using gravity to move the solution sample, but it has become more common for columns to run using varying levels of pressure via mechanical pumps. Different media resins are available to address a multitude of needs when researchers are purifying a diverse set of target molecules.

When performing chromatography, there are two distinct phases: the stationary and mobile phases. The key difference between the two is that the stationary phase does not move with the sample, however, the mobile phase solution moves with the sample. In the stationary phase, there is often a resin media used, verses in the mobile phase, it is often a liquid or gas solution that aids in separating the sample materials.

Both phases have different interactions with the sample, with the stationary phase typically not moving but still interacting with the sample. A mobile phase solution may dissolve the sample and migrate through the stationary phase along with the sample. These solutions must be compatible for a successful separation.

For more information about chromatography resins, click to explore What are chromatography resins?

 

Purification vs. analytical chromatography resin

Liquid chromatography can be performed at both analytical and preparative scales. When taking an analytical approach, the objective is often the discovery, identification, and quantification of a target molecule in the sample. Whereas in preparative liquid chromatography, the focus is to isolate and purify compounds using a downstream bioprocessing technique.

Protein purification can pose many challenges, requiring protocol optimization for each process phase. Whether your process is a more general selection of molecules or a highly specific separation, there are many chromatography methods to choose from.

Some targets may require a multi-step separation process with multiple-column chromatography setups, while others may require a mixed-media resin solution to address specific research needs. Ideally, you will land on a method that requires the fewest steps possible to obtain a purified version of your target molecule.

Below we will cover some of the most common forms of liquid chromatography, highlighting the resins used and their specific benefits.

 

Chromatography and media selection

When considering the type of chromatography resin that best suits your needs, there are four categories of resins to focus on. Factors such as purity, surface charge of the target protein, molecular size, and even water interaction with the sample are all critical in determining the ideal resin.

Let’s explore specific resin types based on different chromatographic techniques in more detail.

Ion Exchange Chromatography

Ion exchange (IEX) chromatography separates molecules based on their total charge. This technique is a powerful method that is used at both analytic as well as preparative phases of purification. Ion exchange resins are created by covalently linking either positively or negatively charged functional groups to a solid matrix. Some commonly used matrices include cellulose, agarose, polymethacrylate, polystyrene and polyacrylamide. Protein sample is loaded onto an IEX column at low ionic strength and then washed with buffers of increasing ionic strength/salt to remove undesired proteins and impurities; the target protein(s) of interest is eluted using either defined salt gradients or a change in pH.

Elution by salt gradients relies on the fact that charged salt ions compete with bound targets for the charged resin. Targets with fewer charged groups tend to elute at lower salt concentrations, and those with more charged groups are eluted at higher sal concentrations. Buffer conditions are critical to this methodology, and sample is typically loaded onto the column in low-salt condition.

For certain samples, this may require a buffer-exchange step prior to loading on an IEX column. Alternatively, elution by pH exploits the isoelectric point (pI) of a target protein. When the pH presented to the sample reaches the pI of the target of interest, it no longer carries a net charge and is released by the resin.

 

Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography

Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) separates proteins based on their hydrophobicity. HIC is often used to separate or purify proteins while maintaining their biological activity, as this technique utilizes buffers, matrices and parameters that are less denaturing to the sample than other purification methods. Salt concentrations, pH and temperature can all influence binding interactions with the media as well as the ligand chemistry that is immobilized to the resin. This methodology is complementary and often used in conjunction with either an upstream high-salt IEX elution or downstream size-exclusion (see below) purification procedure.

 

Size-Exclusion Chromatography

Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) partitions proteins based on their size by filtration through a gel. The gel is made up of spherical beads containing specific-size pores that either include or exclude molecules from the pores within the media. Separation of proteins occurs by size as they pass through the column and are eluted in order of decreasing molecular weight. The two most commonly utilized SEC procedures are to fraction and desalt/buffer exchange proteins. SEC is often used to separate proteins that might not be resolved by other methods, such as IEX or HIC. Researchers may choose to reserve SEC for a final step of purification.

 

Affinity Chromatography

Affinity chromatography utilizes specific binding interactions between a ligand that is immobilized to a resin and its binding partner. The binding/purification is often highly selective and takes advantage of the target protein’s biological structure or function. Typical applications for this method include antibody/antigen, enzyme/substrate and enzyme/inhibitor interactions. Both native as well as recombinantly generated molecules can be purified by this method. Besides offering greater selectivity, affinity chromatography can potentially provide faster time-to-results because of the specific interaction. Depending on the specific purity goals, affinity chromatography is often the first step, if not the only step, in a purification workflow scheme.

 

Multimodal or Mixed-Mode Chromatography

Multimodal or mixed-mode chromatography utilizes resins that have been functionalized with ligands capable of multiple interactions. This method is useful when purifying target proteins that do not have a known specificity. The resin can be used to screen, purify and potentially identify sites on a target protein that can provide useful affinity and selectivity information. However, because there are multiple binding and elution properties, the target interaction cannot be predicted from simple amino acid sequence analysis and requires upfront experimentation on the binding and elution condition optimization. The main advantage of this technique is to combine complementary chromatography methods within a single medium, which can save purification steps and precious sample material while also potentially providing faster time to results, especially for product impurities that are typically very similar to the target molecule.

 

Many options for protein purification

Separating a target protein from complex samples can be very challenging. The purification steps are key and essential processes to further characterizing and understanding the function of the target protein. There are many variables involved in optimizing the workflow process. Often, it is best to start with the primary amino acid sequence of your target. This will provide information on the molecular weight (as a guide for SEC) and pI (as a guide for IEX) and help predict and “score” the solubility characteristics of the protein. Selecting the appropriate chromatography media, along with the wash and elution buffer conditions, can greatly assist in the purification process. There are also multimodal or mixed-mode resins for use when the properties of the target of interest are not well understood. For additional assistance, hydrophobicity plots and secondary-structure predictions can also provide guidance when considering either HIC or mixed-mode resins. Targets with disordered secondary structure (especially at the termini) are frequently either unstable or aggregate-prone, and they interact well with HIC media.

A variety of IEX, affinity, SEC, HIC and multimodal or mixed-mode resins are available from many commercial vendors. In addition, many vendors are able to provide customized media to address the individual and unique needs of researchers. Spend the time to educate yourself on the options available by using online resources and by reaching out to specific vendors to assist you in selecting and developing the appropriate liquid chromatography purification procedures and strategies.

 

Conclusion

Chromatographic resins are an essential tool in research and development, providing scientists with fast and dependable results based on their unique interactions with a sample. Finding a compatible resin media is essential for successful analysis and purification.

Selecting the right chromatographic resin does not have to be a challenge, despite the many variables to consider when exploring the options. With a fundamental understanding of your sample and the goals you wish to achieve, there are limitless customizations available to you for perfecting your laboratory protocols.

Bestchrom is a professional manufacturer and exporter of chromatography resins. If you need to purchase various types of chromatography resin, then you can contact us directly!

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